怡涛yitao 刘liu 画廊gallery


绘画 4 关注者 加入会员自2007
昆明市 Kunming, 中国

返回列表 2007年5月4日新增


IN SEARCH OF CREATIVITY THE LIFE OF CHINESE PAINTER, YITAO LIU追求创新 艺涯随想

IN SEARCH OF CREATIVITY
THE LIFE OF CHINESE PAINTER, YITAO LIU
I was born in November 1955 in the Puer county of Yunnan, a province situated in the southern part of China, which is very famous for the tea it produces. I came from a family with a high academic and social status. My great grandfather came top in the annual imperial civil service examination during the Ching dynasty and was made a government official. My grandfather and father were both teachers and officials.
Influenced by this family background I have liked art and poetry since I was a small child. When I grew older I developed a particular interest in drawing but my school education stopped during the cultural revolution. In 1971 I joined the Chinese Scientific Research Institute of Tropical Plants in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan and worked as a sketcher.
Xishuangbanna is one of the world’s biggest tropical forests. Many famous painters came there to sketch and asked me to be their local guide. They had different specialisations including oil painting, gouache, water colour painting, traditional Chinese painting, figure painting, traditional flowers and birds painting and landscape painting. Because of this I had the opportunity of learning the strength of their different styles and schools.
Out of the various styles of painting I chose to specialise in the drawing of flowers and birds because of my special interest in them. In 1981 and 1982 I had the luck to study in the Beijing Teachers’ University and learned how to observe the essence of the past and present. Since then I have explored ways of expressing the richness and somewhat slightly disorganised scenery of the tropical forest of Xishuangbanna.
My work as a plant sketcher has allowed me to visit primeval forests in all sorts of remote areas of China. This has filled my mind with lots of good subjects for painting, which differentiates me from urban artists who often have too few ideas for their paintings.
Chinese traditional touch painting of flowers and birds is the type of drawing whose content is based on a single theme. Its format is to use extremely clear and simple refined strokes to draw a complete picture of a particular object. If the picture contains too much detail or is too rich in colour, it becomes too cluttered and appears dull and tiresome. Good Chinese traditional touch painting has to be detailed but not tiresome, to give a complete picture without being dull. Therefore typical traditional work comprises a simple branch with either a bird or two. The picture contains much space to show its flexible design of flowers and branches. However this technique is not sufficient to express the lively and energetic atmosphere of a tropical forest. To paint such a picture in this style (which was not undertaken by previous painters) it is necessary to use a rich picture and design in order to express the vividness of its spirit and elegant demeanour.
To avoid tiresome, stiffness and dullness caused by too much detail, I search for a way of painting which allows me to marry the abstract with the real, to mix the drawing of the object itself and its essence and always combine romanticism and symbolic imagery with object painting in the same picture so that the two can be in unity and harmony as much as possible to give a liveliness and energy to the picture. This way of painting relies on personal feeling and understanding of the scenery rather than rational understanding. In my opinion rationality stifles imagination. To a painter perception is more important.
However, simply drawing flowers and birds cannot reflect the richness of the mode of life in its natural environment. I want to break with the accepted separate treatment of landscape painting and the traditional painting of flowers and birds and create a new style which reflects the varieties of life in the tropical forest.
The next step is to search for a poetic feeling, emphasising the imagery of the picture. In my opinion the true meaning of art lies with poetic inspiration. Painting should be an expression of feelings and desires. Its success depends on whether it can arouse or inspire the viewer’s feelings. This type of inspiration comes from perception and not rationality. Images may come from either a past memory aroused by particular scenery or may result from expressing one’s feeling through a particular scene.
The purpose of painting is communication. A good picture blends the thoughts of the painter with the objects in the picture giving particular imagery. Accordingly a painter, through the imagery of his paintings, can communicate to the viewer his viewpoint on certain matters as well as his thoughts and feelings. A the same time I want to show the intricate feeling and colourful connection between man and nature and try to describe their messages for each other through the images in the picture.
I think to a large extent the success of painting depends on whether the painter has the ability to thoroughly and deeply understand and observe nature as well as special feelings. As an artist, it is necessary to be able to pick out the unusual from the usual, to discover the uncommon within the common, to pick relevant ideas from a group of organised data. Only in this way can he stand out from the rest. His drawing techniques should also use ideas to translate the method rather than using the method to translate ideas. In other words the painting method, that is the use of pen and ink, colour and design should follow his own ideas, desires and interests.
Whether the scenery and subjects can be cleverly utilised depends on the variation in the use of the abstract and the realistic drawing technique.
Abstract means using feelings to express ideas. Real means making the theme stand out. The former should be of prime importance because abstract gives life and inspiration. If a picture contains spirit and inspiration it means it comes to life. Abstraction and realism have to compliment each other in order to show the delicacy and elegant demeanour of mountains, the softness and active movement of water and the life-beauty of the flowers and plants.
My search for a new way of painting as mentioned above gives me a unique style which differentiates me from the traditional style of those produced by the contemporary painters. As a result I won the 6th National Drawing Distinction Prize, the 7th National Art Exhibition Bronze Medal, the China Cup Chinese Painting Grand Prize Competition Good Work Prize, National Touch Painting Golden Hairpin Prize and the 3rd prize in the National Scientific and General Art Exhibition. My paintings have been shown in the French Autumn Salon exhibition and exhibited in the international art exhibitions in countries like the USA and Japan. I have mounted personal exhibitions in Beijing in 1991, Hong Kong in 1992, Australia in 1994 and Thailand in 1995. Publications include two sets of ‘Yitao Liu Paintings collection’ which were published by Roung Baozhai Limited in Hong Kong and Yunnan Provincial Nationality Press.


追求创新 艺涯随想
刘怡涛

二十多年前,年仅16岁的我离开家乡普洱,来到了座落在西双版纳勐仑的中国科学院热带植物园工作。我面对着似乎完全是另一个世界神奇的景物, 到处是千奇百怪的植物,种类繁多、层峦茂密的热带雨林,奇花异卉,奇树异木,像朝霞那样五颜六色,看到这些,我忘却了三十几人从早到晚乘座一辆解放牌卡车所带来的疲倦和虽是秋天却炎热无比的气候,跳跃着扑进了它的怀抱。
一年之后的一个偶然机会,我开始了我所钟爱的绘画艺术工作,又由于植物园是有名的热带植物王国,许多著名画家都到这里写生,我便主动为他们担任向导,跟着什么画家学习什么画种——油画、水粉、水彩、国画,人物、花鸟、山水,不同风格,不同流派,使我得于师百家之长。我最终选择了花鸟画,是由于我对花鸟特别的偏爱。我之所以选择表现西双版纳的热带景物,而不是传统的题材,一是爱其朴质、幽雅、脱俗的美;再就是我认为画一种全新的题材,亦是促发观念变革的契机,一种全新的事物,会给人予不同一般的感受,迫使你在表现它时极尽所能,甚而摈弃传统技法,而创新法以应新的命题,触发艺术观之突变或渐变,从而达到创新之目的。我一次又一次地走入那人迹罕至的原始森林,去感悟,去发现大自然的美。山野林间的一丛古藤,一泓泉水,一片绿叶,一朵黄花,甚至一块苔痕斑斑的顽石和枝头的一只鸣禽,都能触发我的创作冲动,形成我胸中那充满诗意的灵感。或许是那片绿色的原野给予了我生命与希望,或许是为满足人们在生活中对美积日已久的追求,我总是想在作品中表现一种生命勃发的新境界,并力图使之富有极强的艺术感染力。我的画力求体现林逋的小桥流水之意境,杜甫的大江东去之雄浑,苏东坡的宇宙怅茫之悠然, 把它们有机地统一到一起来。
1981—1982年我有幸到北京首都师范大学美术系学习,得以观古今之精华。从那时起,我便探索如何表现西双版纳热带雨林——那种丰富的甚而有些杂乱无章的景色。又由于我
在植物园工作而得于到各地人迹罕至的原始森林考察的缘故,上天赐予我非常丰富的艺术创作素材。然而用中国传统工笔画的形式和技法不足以表达热带雨林那种生机勃勃,到处充满活力的景色。这种前人很少涉及的题材内容,显然没有即成的成法和规矩,也与传统工笔花鸟画简洁精练的形式美感不相符。我意识到要用丰满的构图、丰富的画面才能体现它的精神与风姿,为了避免由于画面太满太丰富而容易出现的腻烦、刻板、呆滞,我追求抽象与具象的结合,写实与写意相溶,常常把浪漫主义的、象征的物象与写实的具象物体融于同一画面之中,使两者尽力的统一谐调以显示画面的生命与活力,从而避免了把物体的每一部份都用写实的手法画出来而使人有一种过紧的感觉。
近二十多年来我在工笔花鸟画中,一直在身体力行地追求工笔与写意的结合,我以为工笔与写意相融的绘画,更显得深邃玄奥,妙趣横生。常常把浪漫主义的、象征的物象与
写实的具象物体融于同一画面中,使两者尽力地统一谐调以显示画面的生命与活力,从而避免了物体的每一部分都用写实的手法画出来而使人有一种过紧的感觉。这与中国道家“天人合一”的自然观息息相通。我常以工笔为主,融写意于工笔之中或工中带写的手法,以花卉禽鸟为主体,在工整细微的描写之中,以随意轻松的笔法泼写山石流水、幽林沟壑,常常在工整之中,融进意象化的东西,在静谧秀丽的花鸟之中,即兴神驰,随感而发,使画面严谨中见洒脱,细微中见放逸,笔里墨间流露出浪漫色彩,并力求具有神秘幽邃的意境和丰富的象征意义。我企图做到工而不呆、不板,具有写“意”的效果,近看工整处精细入微,远看充满意境:或具舒心畅意的快感,或有神秘莫测的深邃,或带朦胧如诗的境界。设色庄重清丽,沉着而明快,或热烈而高雅,或幽远而清淡,色彩与墨韵努力达到高度的统一,试图给人以清爽静逸、幽趣天成的意境。在章法布局上,力求博大而又精微,色彩赋予时代气息。在工整中,在具象中,即兴神驰,随感而发地渗入随意的、意象的成分,是打破工笔画过分拘谨的最好手段。只有在创作时自觉或不自觉地任随情感的驱使,在写形中注重气韵的表达与抒发,工笔画过工过拘谨的弱点才会被矫正,才会荡然无存,艺术形象才会生动感人。以气韵求形似,以气韵、神似求工笔,工笔画才会形神兼备。绘画时随灵感契机而发、而作,作品才会充盈诗意。我追求工笔画实象与虚象,具象与意象,相生相融而不悖、不斥、不抵触。以艺术的直觉随兴致而神驰,依情感而生发,是我艺术创作的诀窍,我认为,自然的、原始的、美好的景色会唤起人们美好意念的回归,这将是一种全新的艺术感觉,艺术家的创作正是恢复感觉和丰富感觉的活动。对于画家来说,直觉比理性更为重要,因为直觉是艺术家凭心灵对形物的第一印象,直觉得到的往往是形物的个体特征,是形物的内在精神和内在美之所以感人的地方,是艺术所要追求的生生活力之所在。我追求这种抽象与具象的结合是凭直觉的感悟,甚而是非理性的,我认为理性会束缚人。
绘画只有随喜而作,随意而画,天机才能随兴致而自张,漫然于外而不可收,以至随机应变,随感所至,随意赋形。我作画侧重审美感受,画感觉而不是图解形物。写生如此,创作亦然。我的画室堆积有成百上千的写生稿,每当我心血来潮要画一幅臆想中的作品时,我便取出它们。不在乎它们的颜色,因为颜色可以随作品的需要而更改变化,只在乎它们的形状大小和结构是否符合我臆想中画面的要求,并把它们凭藉感觉随意穿插,或置于树上,或植于树根下,布于泉石,及其泼洒水墨渍色,苔痕雾气。这一切犹如万斛泉涌,自然流出,水到渠成,随机宜灵感赋形泼彩而不可知也,及至十之八九,方才小心收拾,正所谓,大胆落笔小心收拾是也。常行于所当行,止于不可不止。我的那些搜尽奇葩异草以及奇形怪状的素材,当我创作时大都随意取来,然造境创意全靠创作时的心态,渲染泼绘全凭心境,不拘泥于原形的色彩,只凭借我画时的感觉。因此我画作中花鸟、山石、林泉的色彩大多不是真实的,尤其山林泉石形质大多出自我的再创造,已非原形原貌。这也是画之理源于自然而又高于自然之理。这种随天机灵感而作,予人以主观上的极大自由而又不违背艺术源于自然而又高于自然之法则,是主体上的高度自由与客观要求高度吻合。依此而创造的作品,自然而然就有了突出的个性和洋溢的情感,十足的神气,奇妙的意境和幽远的气韵。我虽画工笔,然在工整之中,又时常即兴神驰,随感而发:或泼彩以写苔痕,或皴擦留白以显灵动,或染渍以营造诗意氛围,或冲洗以制造自然肌理;注重并强调工笔画中的写意性。在工笔画艺术创作中强调写意性无疑包涵了下面的内容:工写结合,才能形神达意;气韵生动,才能超然物外;虚实结合,才能灵动深远;以及我文中没有提到,但在工笔画的写意性中亦占十分重要成分的,如倡导神韵雅逸,才能超然物外,倡导以神取形,才能形神兼备,倡导物我两融,才能生意造境。
单一的折枝式花鸟,我以为不适宜再现我所钟情的西双版纳密林及其生态环境的丰富,我有意打破了山水与花鸟这两大不同门类的画种间界线,追求山水与花鸟的结合,以体现其生态环境的多样性,营造一种新的形式感。也把山水画的博大、深远融于花鸟画中。山水与花鸟的结合,实际上是在山水画的基础上,像摄影的特写镜头一样拉近、放大,突出近景形物;在近景的花鸟后边布置山石溪流、水口瀑布,或穿插幽林沟壑,使之与主体的花鸟相融成趣。主体的花鸟仍然占据主要位置,山水以虚的艺术语言进行处理概括,使画面层次既丰富又分明,虚实对比强烈而生动,既有山水画的态势,又不失花鸟画的特点,从而达到山水画与花鸟画相融相生,珠联璧合,妙趣横生的效果。山水与花鸟的结合,是使庭园花鸟回归自然、还原自然、不脱离自然的绝妙之路径,让花鸟回到原本属于它们的世界去,它们会因此而更加充满活力,也会因此而给人一种山野的气息,倍感亲切,仿佛观者也远离了喧嚣的城市,亲临其境。
在工笔花鸟画的创作中,我从继承宋代花鸟画成就始,体味溪涧野禽、折枝花卉中所表现出来的深远博大、精美绝伦的意境;到探索技法源流、笔墨色彩,其浩瀚繁多的艺术样式和审美情趣,正是我至今仍被感动的原因所在。从传统中我深悟形式美感的法则在于其构图对比的强烈,于奇险中求平稳,于繁杂中求深远,造型概括和色彩沉着;我同时也明了,只有具有丰富情感,用生命和激情绘画,给一切画中形物寄托情感的艺术品,才会是感人动人的艺术品。
  我熟知诗画同源同理的原因,时常在作品中追求诗意的感觉,强调画面的意境。我认为,艺术的真谛,在于有诗的灵性,作画要有感而发,随意而作,成功与否,在于是否有感人的意境,诗的灵性。然而这种灵性,是非理性的,多为直觉。而意境的产生则是从触景生情到寓情于景,写景是为了写情,最后达到了情景交流,物我两融,体现出某种意思的境界。因此,从一张画的意境中,不但可以把一些事物和观念告诉给看画者,并且把画家自己的思想感情感染给看画者。同时,我努力表现那些人与自然的微妙感情色彩,企图通过绘画的手段来传达他们之间相互的信息。我觉得绘画上的成功,很大程度在于画家对自然(包括人)深刻的洞察力和与众不同的思维感受。作为艺术家,要于一般中看出不一般,于平常中发现不平常,于杂乱中理出头绪。唯这样,才会超乎常人。表现技法上亦要以意役法,而不以法役意。也就是说,要使法——笔墨、色彩、构图服从于胸中之意趣,情愫。而画境之妙,则在于虚实变化。虚者,意象淡化,实者,主体突出,虚是第一位的,虚则灵,灵则有魂,有魂则画活矣。虚实相辅相成,方能显山之玲珑而多姿,水之涟猗而多态,花之生动而多致。
回顾我创作的历程,前期的画风偏向于工整,在继承传统的基础上进行创新。这一时期的构图严谨,力求表达自己感觉到的热带雨林的丰富、神奇、美丽;画面虽小,却喜欢用气势较大的构图,以森林、岩石,甚至是沟谷、河流作背景,又力求使之与前景的花卉融为一体,或藏或露,充分体现出工笔花鸟画含蓄、朦胧的意境美;为了在密实中有透气之处,增强画面的诗意美感,我常常在画面中画龙点睛地画上一轮明月,使画面充满灵动之氛围。这一时期我的作品还通过面与线的结合加强画面的艺术表达效果。在着色上以勾勒分染等传统技法为主,在博采众长的基础上奉现给人们一个我眼中的色彩纷呈的艺术世界。我1984年创作的那幅题为《迷朦月色弥幽壑》的作品,既是这一时期的代表作。从此画的创作中,我更深刻地意识到,作画要有感而发,随意而作。成功与否,在于是否有感人的意境,诗的灵性。然而这种灵性,是非理性的,多为直觉。意境的产生则是从触景生情到寓情于景,写景是为了写情,最后达到了情景交流,物我两融,体现出某种意思的境界。因此,从一张画的意境中,不但可以把一些事物和观念告诉给看画者,并且把画家自己的思想感情感染给看画者。
我认为,绘画艺术的创新,在于审美观念的转变与更新,情趣意识的觉醒与超越。自古以来的绘画艺术变革者,如果只是注重绘画技法上的变革,其作品往往只是画面形式的小变,而如果是注重审美观念的更新与转变,注重理性思维与形式美感的更新,则其作品从形式到技法皆会因为这种转变而产生变革,旧的形式技法必须服从于新的观念产生变革,新的流派,新的艺术形式亦会随之产生。然画新的题材,新的内容,亦是促发观念变革的锲机,一种全新的事物,会给人予不同一般的感受,迫使你在表现它时极尽所能,甚而屏弃传统技法,而创新法以应新的命题,触发艺术观之突变或渐变,从而达到创新之目的。
当然,观念之变革,还需有学识的支撑,没有渊博的学识,艺术观的转变往往也是浅薄和牵强附会的。
艺术来自于生活或自然瞬间的感受,来自于那记忆深渊中的映象。
我时常追逐生活和自然景观给予我的感受,这种感受是一种模糊不定的,有时在我脑海中转瞬即逝,有时它又是那么地清晰,似乎就在眼前,但只有把它们再现于纸上,不断地加以完善、充实,有时一口气画出来,有时又因这种记忆深渊中的朦胧和模糊而不得不中断创作,这些中断了的半成品,我会经常拿出来研究它们,感觉或捕捉新的灵感火花,当有了新的想法又继续创作,直至完成它。灵感,常常会随着创作而产生。因而我作画,事先往往只作一大概的设想,然后边画边思考,有时画到一半,画不下去了,或者觉得画糟了,就搁置一边,另画一幅,隔一段时间后,再翻出来看看,有时会突发奇想,完全改变原来的想法,又产生一些新的想法,继续画下去,结果这幅画还出乎预料的好。当然,更多的时候是在画前既有一完整的想法,当这个想法在实际创作中进行不下去时,就搁置一边,等待以后有了新的想法时再继续。
我喜花、爱花,每到野外,常常觉得自然中的百花在感召我,吸引我去描绘它,表现它。看到奇异美妙的花卉我都会仔细地端详它们,描绘它们的各种情态作为我创作的素材。我会把我感受、领悟到的景物在我的画中再创造出来,这时花的自然美与我的审美情趣、审美理想、艺术创意融汇在一起,构成了我心目中的花的世界。这些花也必然具有了我的艺术特色和风格。那些生长在热带丛林中纯朴、神奇、丰富的无须雕琢的自然美景在激励着我尽全力去表现它们——在热带雨林中,在沟壑溪边。在那漫山遍野的绿海之中出现一树红花,便觉凭添了无限的诗意;于沟壑之中观赏泉瀑叠水,犹如感受生命赞歌的洗礼,所有血管中的血液都会激动起来,是那么地畅快淋漓;在林中听鸟语蝉声,便唤起许多的幽趣与遐思;在昆明过冬天,我最期盼的是下大雪,虽然不是每年都会有,然而昆明的雪景却有着独特的景致,往往是初春时节降大雪,压得植物园中的茶花和玉兰弯不过腰来,鲜红的山茶花和略带暖意的玉兰花却不惧怕严寒一枝独放,触动着大自然无限的生机……人的审美情趣,人的灵感火花,会在与大自然的接触碰撞中生发、激荡。
一个人生命的价值,在于感情的寄托与追求中实现。倘若人生没有寄托、没有追求,人生将会变得何等的空虚乏味。寄托,就是赋予自我生命一个目标——赋予自我行为、思想一个可以孜孜以求的、使其体现自我价值并获得意义,使生活变得有滋有味、有棱角有角、丰富多彩的目标。用画笔表现世界,表现心灵深处的律动,表现理想与希望,表现人世间最美好的情感世界,表现我认为美的情趣、意境,便是我生命的寄托。那些深深吸引我的热带雨林及其一草一木,在激励着我向前探索。当我看到自己亲手把臆想中的景物通过绘画语言表达出来,那怕仅仅是很小的一点点成功,我所感受到的那种自我实现的快乐,是任何其它快乐所不能比拟的。所以寄托,必须是高尚的寄托。有了高尚的寄托,还必须要做、要努力,只寄托不努力的人是空想家,所以寄托的关键是要脚踏实地地做。我相信,只要不停地追求,全身心地投入,就会最大限度地发挥自身的内在潜能;边实践、边研究、边创作,才能实实在在地获得生命的意义,生命的寄托才不至于落空。我不后悔我在西双版纳所呆的17年,这比我在家乡普洱呆的时间还要长一年,西双版纳成了我真正的第二故乡。现在虽然离开那里,来到昆明工作又过去了十个年头。然而,版纳的一山一水,仍然给我营养和灵感,几乎每年都要回去,有时一年两三次。虽然不全是为了绘画,然而,这与我对她的深厚感情分不开,她孕育着我的艺术和我的灵魂之苍穹,使我的灵感火花永远不熄。

1998年春日于春城醉艺斋
(原载《刘怡涛工笔画新作选》云南美术出版社1998)

 

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