Добавлено 19 янв. 2010 г.
Painting is a work of art by painting (oil, tempera, watercolors, gouache, etc.) deposited on any solid surface. The main thing in painting - color, its ability to induce various feelings, associations, strengthens the emotional images.
By the nature of color combinations, it can be warm and cold, happy and sad, calm and intense, light and dark.
Painting is capable of delivering on the plane and the volume of space, nature, reveal a complex world of human emotions and characters embody universal ideas, events of the past, mythological images, and imagination.
Painting is divided into the easel and monumental. Artist paints pictures on canvas, stretched on a frame and mounted on an easel, which can also be called a machine. Hence the name "easel painting".
And the word "monumental" shows something big and significant. The monumental painting - more pictures on the internal or external walls of buildings (murals, panels, etc.).
Interest in artists of different objects and events of the world led to the emergence over the XVII-XX centuries. genres of painting: portraiture, still life, landscape, the animal, domestic (genre), the mythological, historical, battle genre. In works of art can meet the combination of genres, or their elements. For example, a still life or landscape can successfully complement the portrait.
For technical methods and materials used painting can be divided into the following types: oil, tempera, wax (encaustic), enamel, glue, water paints on wet plaster (fresco), etc. In some cases it is difficult to separate art from graphic arts. The works executed in watercolor, gouache, pastels, may apply to painting, and graphics.
Painting can be a single-layer, performed, and multilayered, comprising podmalevki and glaze, applied to the dried paint layer of transparent and translucent layers of paint. This is achieved by subtle nuances and shades of color.
Important means of artistic expression in the paintings are slick and the nature of stroke, texture, Valerie (show subtle changes in tone depending on the illumination), reflections, appearing on the interaction of lying next to flowers.
Construction of volume and space in painting is associated with linear and aerial perspective, the spatial properties of warm and cool colors, cut-off modeling form, sending the overall color tone fabric. To create a pattern, except for color, needed a good figure and expressive composition. The artist usually begins work on canvas with a search for the most successful solutions in sketches. Then, in the many scenic sketches from nature, he is preparing the necessary elements of the composition. Work on the painting can begin with the implementation of the picture composition with a brush, podmalevka and directly writing canvases by various pictorial means. Moreover, even the preliminary sketches and studies often have an independent artistic value, especially if you belong to the brush-known painter.
In ancient times, has become urgent quest for light and shade.
Medieval art was mostly religious content. It featured a loud expression, mostly of local color, expressive contours. A significant role was played by symbolism of color.
In the Renaissance sense of harmony of the universe, anthropocentrism. Artists first came to write his paintings on the outdoors.
At the end of XIX-XX centuries. development of painting becomes particularly complex and controversial. Various realistic, and modernistic currents are winning the right to exist.
Appears abstract painting (see avant-garde, abstract art, underground), which marked the abandonment of fine and active expression of the artist's personal relationship to the world, emotionality and conventional color, exaggeration and geometrization of forms, decorative and associativity of composite solutions.
In the XX century. the search for new colors and technical means to create paintings, which will undoubtedly lead to the emergence of new styles in painting, but the oil painting is still one of the most popular techniques.
Form various scenic system: dynamic Baroque painting with its distinctive closed, spiral-shaped track; rococo painting with a game of exquisite shades of color, light colors, painting classicism with a clear, strict and clear picture.
In the XIX century. Art has played an active role in public life. Painting Romanticism differed active interest in the dramatic events of history and modernity, contrasting light and shade, color saturation.